Since the first day the radio was invented by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895, we always thought that the signals we are sending to space one day would reach someone and they reply to our broadcast. We have seen in the movies and documentaries and read it in books that we are able to send radio signals to space and hoping one day they reach a planet in a far distance. Still thousands of people across the world broadcast special signals into the space and scan thousands of channels everyday hoping to receive something. But, now I can strongly state that because of a Wave-Shift in signals we NEVER have and we NEVER will be able to receive or send even a single signal EVER (a signal of any kind that is understandable or transformable to a form that they can understand it, like turning radio signals into audio). Not even a "beep"(!). Distortions, yes, but not a signal that has been transmitted and received as whole.
Millions of dollars are spent on research every year in most countries around the world trying to receive something from the deep space on their radio receivers without a success. Still we can hear the scientists speaking of radio signals are sent into space for past 70 or 100 years and the signals have traveled a fare bit of long distance and maybe one day someone on a different planet would receive these signals and return a reply. We still hear about SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) and NASA that are scanning thousands of radio channels everyday to see if they can receive anything. SETI has even developed a screen saver that allows users to receive some of these data in a row format, process them and send them back to their site. The signals do reach a destination, but after a considerable time of travel they tend not to be the same signal was generated in the first place. The signal has a new shape and is not the same as we always believed.
The changes to the signals have nothing to do with the condition of signal generator and how powerful it is. Space noise and presence of other signals in the space have nothing to do with the changes to the signal. In normal condition of transmission (i.e. a stationary transmitter) as signal travels a long distance it loses strength and weakens, in the long run it would loss power and eventually disappear, but what is discussed here is the condition that the transmitter is located on a rotating planet (i.e. the earth) and there are no actions taken to reduce this effect. Scientists believe radio signals are generated by planets that do interfere with our transmissions, this is correct but signals have already changed their shape because of the way we transmit them into space.
I explain it why they never have and never will be able to get something out of transmitting signals to other intelligent life or listening to them.
If a planet is rotating on its axis it will shift whatever is sent out of the planet, such as light or radio signals. This shift is so small that no one has ever bothered to calculate it, and because we always wanted to communicate with a relatively shorter distance (mostly within our own solar system) we actually never experienced this phenomena. The waves or signals start to shift immediately after they leave the transmitter (assuming this transmission is sent directly into space from a dish antenna facing the sky on a 90° angle), but because this shift is so small, it never had any effect on our communications. This shift starts to have a major effect after leaving our solar system.
For example if we are sending a signal to the length of one second from Sydney to PLUTO the last planet in our solar system which is only 5.6 hours (approx.) away by radio signals, the Wave-Shift at this distance is only 110* meters. This shift is not enough to stop the receiver from receiving this signal as the signal's width would compensate the shift. (See the "Shared areas of shifted signal")
In recent times we saw contacts were lost with Pioneer 10 only 12 hours (half a light day) away from the Earth. If steps taken and corrections are made to the conditions of transmission we would be able to resume communications with the satellite. Although scientist believe with the only 28 watts of power Pioneer 10 has no signal strength to communicate with earth; but the real problem lies with the way that the signal travels, not the power of transmitter nor the space noise. Of course the more powerful the transmitter is the longer the signal travels and easier to detect, but the first to consider is the condition of transmitter and the rate of its rotation and movement on daily basis. In long distance communications the space noise and signal strength are important factors in transmission of data, but the primary concern is the Wave-Shift. To read more about how communications can be resumed with Pioneer 10 click here.
The responsibility of tracking Pioneer 10 is with Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex located in Canberra, Australia. As Canberra is located on 36° latitude, by referring to the formula the beginning and the end of every one second signals are 223* meters apart. In order to enable us to communicate with Pioneer 10, these signals should be almost on the same line and be around 0 meters apart. For example if we are going to transmit a minute of data to this satellite, the beginning of the transmission would be 13,350 meters apart with the end of the transmission. 13.3km distance in signal is grater than what the satellite can handle. By the time the transmission is over the satellite is simply not there to receive the completion of the signal.
A "Wave-Shift" is when the end of a wave length has a distance from the beginning of the same signal on the same line. This distance must be zero or close to zero to enable us to receive it and understand it or translate it. When we transmit a signal the beginning and the end of the signal are on the same line and the distance between them is zero, but after traveling a long distance into the space this distance appears to be moved from zero and grows more as it travels farther from the transmitter. (Click to enlarge). The farther the signal travels, the grater the shift is. Eventually the signal would travel in a form that would seem almost sideways rather than straight line.
It does not mean we cannot receive a signal when it is shifted. We are still able to receive it but we can't translate it or turn it into an audible format. If you have a good radio receiver with LW (Long Wave) band, you can receive some of these "shifted signals" in a form of distortions. These distortions sound like an electric motor running close to a radio, but far from each other. Electric motor creates much closer and jammed signals than a shifted signal. To see the 24 hours version click here.
As signals are shifted they are stretched and from 100s or 1000s of megahertz per second down to 100s of kilohertz per second and in some cases even less than this. For example if we are sending a radio signal on AM band of 800 kHz, after a few light years they are down to a few hundred Hertz. Microwave signals are no exceptions. Before if the length of 800 kHz signal was 1 second or 300,000Km now the same signal is longer in length than before, it is longer by 0.103*Km per second per light year (See diagram) (if the signal is transmitted from the Equator, see formula). So if the signal is going to travel a very long distance this stretching continues and the amount of signals per second will drop. If before we had 800 kHz/s signals after 100 years travel we would have relatively less signals per seconds.
No, it has the same effects on light as well as radio signal.
The effects start from transmitting, but if you are on the receiving end it would effect you. This means that if a signal is coming from a planet in the far distance and we are trying to receive it, this signal is shifted at a rate that depends on:
1- How far the planet is from us, and
2- How fast the planet is rotating on its axis.
This finding shows that we have never been able to receive any signals from the outer space that we could interpret it or transform it to a form that we can hear or understand. With the way and equipments we are using we will never be able to receive any signals. The only thing that we can receive are very short signals that because of their nature of travel we can translate them into fainted "beeps" and hear them on the radio.
When the base of the transmitter is on the move and/or rotating on its axis (like a planet/the Earth) at a fast rate the signals that are transmitted would be shifted after they leave our solar system. The amount of this shift depends on the location of the transmitter from the equator. On the equator (0°) the Wave-Shift is the maximum amount, by going farther away from the equator and getting closer to the poles (90°) the Wave-Shift is reduced and will be zero at the poles. The length of the signal stays the same, but it is its direction that shifts. For example if we are transmitting a 5 minutes of radio signals from somewhere on the equator, after 1 light year it is still a 5 minutes in length signal but is now traveling almost sideways and the end of signal is separated from the beginning of it by about 74,464*Km. (Click to enlarge).
It shifts the light same way as radio signals, see the next page.
Wave-Shift starts from distance of 1 LD or sometimes even less than that. (1 LD, Light Day is the distance that light travels in 1 day or 23.93 hours). For example the Wave-Shift at this point if the transmitter is located at 33.88° latitude (Sydney) would be 470* meters. We are still receiving radio signals but unable to sort them out and interpret them. We can see light from stars and planets millions or even billions of light years away because to see a light it is enough to receive a small fragment of the signal, that is all needed. But in radio signals we have to receive the complete length of the signal so we can interpret it. (Click to enlarge) We cannot see any stars or planet that is rotating on its axis in fine details. All we can see is a bright dot and sometimes with darker spots on them. Even if we build the most powerful telescope in the universe, when we look at a planet only 100 light years away we will not be able to see a detailed picture of the planet, all what we would see is a distorted picture. This picture would look like a pixilated picture and some would think with special computer software they can clear these distortions. There are planets and solar systems millions or even billions of light years away from us. (Click to enlarge)
Because they are not rotating, objects such as space dust clouds or asteroids are not rotating therefore are not subject to a "Wave-Shift". The Wave-Shift is applicable to any rotating objects. The pictures "A & B" present an illustrated version of Wave-Shift on light arrays and how they effect our vision. On picture "A" this is Earth if is not rotating or taken picture from a close proximity, picture "B" presents the planet from a very remote proximity and the planet rotates. On picture "A" we can zoom in our telescope to see more fine details. On picture "B" no matter how much we can zoom in or how good we can digitally process the pictures with computers; still we can't make a good picture out of it. No matter how we adjust our telescopes or how powerful they are, it seems we cannot see the fine details that we think we should. If with the state-of the-art computer digitally we sharpen and modify these images we would create a picture that would make some meaning but is far from the real image.
This means that from a blurry image we are creating an image that is not related to the real image anymore, we have created a totally new image.
The image is not just blur, it is made of many layers, when we look at an object in a close proximity we see one layer for each object, or to put it in a correct way we see the object made out of many layers that are constantly projected outwards; all these layers have the same origin and the same destination. When we increase our distance the "Motion Effect" overlays all these layers, these layers have same origin but different destination. As you can see in the picture the light signals are shifted and the objects have become blurred. This shift and blur continues to get grater as the distance gets grater. From a considerable distance all planets and stars would appear very similar, just the bright and darker spots are placed differently.
The effect on light starts from the time that light leaves its source, same as radio signals. But, unlike radio signals that we need the whole lot of signals to make something out of it, i.e. make it audible, just a fragment of light is enough to register on film or eye for further research.
The diagram shows that by looking at a planet light years away from us we actually would be looking at images coming from different areas of planet, but on the same angle. Images from thousands of miles apart from each other are entering into eye or camera one after each other and mistakenly they appear to be from the same point. By looking at a planet or star for a period of time, or exposing a film to the planet for long will result in capturing wrong images. Since the first person attached a camera to a telescope to take a picture of a planet they came into this habit of exposing the film to light for a long time. Astronomers expose the film to light sometimes for minutes and hours. This practice will result in registration of multiple images from different part of planet thousands of miles apart onto the film creating one image. The final result would be an image that contains a lot more images from 'sometimes the whole' planet.
Light beams that had left the planet light years ago now travel sideways and now are turned into "Layers" rather than straight beams. These layers are now positioned one after each other, by exposing a film to these layers we are actually registering multiple layers that are from different part of planet. For example using Earth, if we put our prospect one thousand light years away and look directly at the planet we will see everything from east to west. We can take a photograph of anything from Shanghai all the way to London onto one image that the film is exposed to light for a few minutes. To avoid this multiple registration of images onto films we must stop exposing them to light for long period of time. Layers must be captured at one time only rather than capturing multiple layers at once.
Exactly opposite of traditional way of photography, which is exposing the film to lights from a planet for long time; a very fast speed camera is needed to capture these layers. Although it is necessary to capture more light as the light coming from distant planets are fainted and more photons needed to register on film, but this is causing further problem. With current tradition astronomers expose the film up to 20 minutes and sometimes up to an hour of light, 20 minutes exposure will capture layers to the thickness of 360,000,000Km. Earth rotates at 465m per second on its axis, in 20 minutes the location on earth has moved 558Km from the previous position - plus the distance it has traveled around sun, imagine to start to photograph an object and by the time you close the shutter the object has moved 558Km away and a new object is exposing.
Scientists do compensate this movements by adjusting the telescope or receiver dish by moving it at the same rate as earth rotates, but this only corrects the problem at our side, when the light/signal comes from a planet nothing can compensate the shifted signals generated from that planet.
To overcome this problem we need a very fast shutter speed to cut these movements. For example a camera with 1/1000 of a second shutter speed can capture a layer of 300Km thick. If the shutter speed is set to a faster action like 1/2000 or 1/4000 of a second it can capture 150Km and 75Km of these layers consequently. The faster shutter speed of the camera is, the thinner the capture of the layers is. If we have a camera with the shutter speed of light, we can capture a layer with the thickness of one kilometer. This image will be so sharp that would show every details of that area. A proposal of cameras with Light Speed Shutter (LSS) is currently submitted to camera manufacturers, for further information click here.
As explained before images look blurry with the current tradition of photography. Every image taken from a planet or star from a distant would look very similar due to this blurriness.
Few ways to do, ............. just ask.
Nothing, but if you are in a habit of scanning the radio channels to find a signal, you will not be able to receive anything (!); you would get just distortions. And if you are transmitting a signal to reach another planet, your signal will be useless because it is shifted and therefore unusable. Your signal will arrive at the destination in distorted version.
It is very much possible for resumption of communications between base station and the satellite. It also is possible to re-establish communications with the previous satellites that left our solar system decades ago.
As it was explained before when the transmission reaches its destination the satellite is not at that place anymore and it has moved miles away from the previous place. Scientists do calculate the movements of Earth and satellite, the signal that is sent reaches it, The signal tells the computer on board to open memory and start recording the data; but by the time the transmission is over and the signal indicates that I am done and "end of transmission" the satellite is not there anymore. By referring to the formula, it shows there is 223 meters of Wave-Shift in every second of transmission to Pioneer 10, which is located only 12 hours (it is shown as 0.00137 of a light year) from Earth. (Click here to see the formula).
If a transmitter or a relay unit is aboard a plane or the transmission is sent to a relay satellite that travels at the speed of 500Km/h in the direction of east to west on the same latitude as Canberra, the wave-shift is minimized by almost two third and is reduced to 89 meters, which is still receivable by the satellite. (Click here to see the formula). The transmissions are sent back by satellite can be received by the ground facilities as the returned signal is not subjected to a wave-shift because the satellite is rotating like the Earth does. Corrections must be made to the way we transmit for a successful result in transmitting signals.
The Correction Transmitter can also be put on a train that travels at 150Km/h from east to west on a straight line. (Click here to see the formula). At this speed the wave-shift is reduced to 176 meters from 223, at this rate we are still able to receive a fainted and distorted transmission. The transmission is sent from the ground station to the moving train, plain, or the stationery satellite and retransmitted to the satellite. The signal after received by the satellite is processed and sent back and 12 hours later is received by the ground station. The total time for the transmission would take anything more than 24 hours. This is important to know that there are other ways to reduce this wave-shift even further, and it can be used re-establish communications with other satellites that previously lost communication with.